- Defense

Non-Verbal Communication: Withdrawal, Insulation, and Turf Defense

Once encroachment happens, people react in one of four ways; withdrawal, insulation, turf defense, and linguistic collusion. Withdrawal is the moving away from the encroacher. Insulation is the building of boundaries to encroachers. Turf defense is when the owner expels the encroacher. Linguistic collusion is the verbal assaulting of the encroacher to make them feel of unwanted and unwarranted. A person reacts different depending on the encroacher. Based on the text, these are the factors influencing territorial defense. 1) Who was the encroacher? 2) Why did they encroach? 3) What territory did they encroach on? 4) How did they encroach? 5) How long did the encroachment last? 6) Will they do it again? 7) Where did it occur? Most of this is done simultaneously. All of these factors will determine defense and any future preemptive measures that it takes to defend territory.

The differences in personal space between international cultures

In the U.S., we feel more comfortable with communication from greater distances than in Latin America. In the U.S., people feel uncomfortable with men holding hands, but in the Middle East, this is normal. In the U.S., we shake hands as a normal greeting, but in Italy; there is a hug and kissing of the cheek. The French are like North Americans in the fact that they are very comfortable with distance. I believe the differences are too subtle to explain and that it would not be accurate to generalize. This is because in the U.S., there are differences from state to state and region to region. Stereotypes have to be really examined to accurately say that all people are the same from a certain place.

What effect does crowding in a city living environment have on how its citizens view personal living space?

Crowding or living in a high density area, such as New York, affects one’s view of territory and space. The streets and living space in the city of New York is very crowded and gives a person a different reality than someone living in Columbia, S.C. In New York, there is always someone there. There defense mechanisms are different than someone living in a small town. Statistics show that high density areas are plagued with a greater number of human woes than low density areas. One could assume this is because of the number of people and also the constant invasion, violation and contamination of space. This fact also leads to more insulation. There are more cops and security needed in high density areas. People from high density areas also seem less friendly. This is a coping mechanism used to live in a high density area. Also, there is more turf defense and thus more violence in high density areas.

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